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Henry IV (1399–1413), the son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, seized the English throne on the age of thirty-two from his cousin Richard II and held it until eventually his dying, elderly forty-five, whilst he used to be succeeded by way of his son, Henry V. This accomplished and nuanced biography restores to his rightful position a king frequently ignored in prefer of his illustrious progeny.
 
Henry confronted the standard difficulties of usurpers: international wars, rebellions, and plots, in addition to the targets and calls for of the Lancastrian retainers who had helped him win the throne. by way of 1406 his rule used to be generally verified, and even supposing he grew to become ailing almost immediately after this and not totally recovered, he retained final strength till his demise. utilizing a large choice of formerly untapped archival fabrics, Chris Given-Wilson unearths a classy, extravagant, and skeptical monarch who overwhelmed competition ruthlessly yet by no means relatively succeeded in pleasurable the expectancies of his personal supporters.

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Sixty eight C. Phillpotts, ‘The destiny of the Truce of Paris, 1396–1415’, magazine of Medieval background, 24, 61–80. For the rite on 31 July, Saint-Denys, iii. 3–5; POPC, i. 130–6, 143–4. bankruptcy 12 THE PARLIAMENT OF 1401 Fifteen months into his reign, Henry's desire for funds was once acute. Having laid such tension at the ‘insupportable burdens’ Richard had needlessly imposed upon his topics, he had forborne from asking for both an immediate subsidy or tunnage and poundage in October 1399. 1 might be due to this, or even consequently of assurances it used to be later claimed he had given through the revolution, there had arisen a well-liked trust that he had undertaken to not increase taxation. actually, he had promised not more than to prevent elevating taxes except it proved essential to achieve this, within which case he could search the consent of parliament, which used to be little various from what had occurred hitherto. 2 there has been definitely no venture to ‘live of his own’, or to chorus completely from hard direct taxation, regardless of the preferred charm of such notions. three however, Henry had raised expectancies. while he requested Londoners for a mortgage in 1400, they spoke back that he had promised to ‘abstain from loans and tallages of this sort’; early in 1401, the electorate of Bristol refused to pay cash late from Richard's reign ‘because of the king's pardon, so that they claimed, at his first arrival within the kingdom’. round the related time an unfortunate collector of ulnage (cloth tax) was once crushed to dying via drapers at Norton St Philip (Somerset) simply because his calls for have been ‘contrary to the promise excusing them from such funds which the king had made to them on the time of his satisfied return’; one other tax-collector slightly escaped an identical destiny at Dartmouth (Devon). four the truth that Henry had inherited the duchy of Lancaster which, with his personal Bohun inheritance, was once worthy among �12,500 and �14,000 a yr, additionally served to border the phrases within which debate over the king's monetary wishes was once carried out. five will possibly not the source of revenue from the duchy aid to relieve the king's wishes? Henry made it transparent from the beginning that the reply was once no. The day after his coronation, a constitution was once drawn up pointing out the duchy to be fullyyt separated from the crown, ‘as if we had by no means assumed the ensign of royal dignity’, and the production of Prince Henry as duke of Lancaster a month later theoretically sealed this separation through aside from the duchy's assets from the king's direct keep an eye on. 6 In perform this made it extra amenable to the king's will, and the duchy did make a small contribution to crown source of revenue, yet not more than approximately �1,120 a yr on ordinary. the vast majority of its profit used to be used to pay the annuities assigned on its lands (£8,000–9,000 a yr) and the wages and different administrative charges of the property. 7 there have been stable purposes for Henry to insist in this detachment of duchy from crown. It was once a manner of emphasizing the excellence among his deepest lordship and his public governance, and a warrantly to the duchy's annuitants, who integrated many Lancastrian stalwarts, that its sales might stay used to present them instead of being swallowed up by way of the grasping maw of the kingdom – and, conversely, that the placement wouldn't come up wherein the duchy could be suspected of being a cost at the exchequer.

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